Clerics must excel the laity in virtue and good deeds and daily devotion Secular priests must make a retreat at least every three years , respect and obey their Ordinary , love solid studies , submit to examinations for three years after their ordination , and attend the diocesan conferences Clerics in major orders are forbidden to marry. They must live chaste lives and conduct their homes accordingly , and recite the canonical hours All clerics must dress as clerics Clerics, Things Forbidden to.
They are forbidden to go bail and must abstain from all things unbecoming or foreign to their state They shall not act as agents for property, nor run for political offices They shall not volunteer for military service, and if they do so, they forfeit their clerical standing They are forbidden to engage in any secular business They are bound not to leave their diocese for a notable time without permission of the Ordinary , and may be recalled by him when absent on leave unless they have been excardinated Clerics in minor orders may be reduced to the lay state by living an unclerical life, by voluntary choice, and by the declaration of the Ordinary Clerics in major orders, who have returned to the lay state by permission, or who have been reduced to it, must obtain permission of the Holy See if they wish to return to the clerical state Closed Season.
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The solemn blessing of marriage is forbidden from the first Sunday in Advent to Christmas inclusively, and from Ash Wednesday to Easter Sunday inclusively Coadjutor Bishop. A Coadjutor Bishop is given by the Pope to a Bishop or to a see with the right of succession The rights of a Coadjutor to a Bishop are defined by his letters of appointment. He ought to be willing to do whatever his Bishop may request of him A Coadjutor to a see may exercise all episcopal powers, excepting ordination He must live in the diocese and obtain the permission of his Bishop to leave for any length of time He must show his letters of appointment on entering the diocese and becomes the Ordinary of the diocese on the death of his Bishop as soon as he takes possession He may be sent by his Bishop to represent him at a plenary council , 1 , at a provincial council , 1 , and also at episcopal conferences It defines nothing on liturgical subjects 2 and does not change any special agreements or concordats established between various nations and the Holy See 3.
Unless expressly stated it does not abrogate any acquired rights, privileges, and indults 4. Immemorial customs at variance with the Code are abolished only when it explicitly disapproves of them 5. Unless otherwise stated it abolishes all laws published prior to the Code 6, 1 unless they are explicitly or implicitly contained in the Code 6, 6.
Cohabitation after the marriage ceremony has taken place establishes a presumption of consummation , 2. Collection of Roman Decrees. The collections of the decrees of the Roman Congregations cannot be published anew without the supervision and permission of the Moderators of the respective Congregations It is forbidden to the faithful in any way to take part in the services of non-Catholics , 1. Excommunicated persons have no right to assist at the divine services for the faithful , 2 or to receive the sacraments , 1.
Whoever takes part in heretical worship is suspected of heresy Clerics communicating with a person under major excommunication incur excommunication reserved to the Holy See , 2. The faithful should avoid dealing even in profane things with persons under major excommunication In future religious Orders no longer communicate in the privileges granted to others , 1. Frequent Communion is to be fostered among the laity and especially among religious , 2.
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The Ordinary may forbid Communion to a person guilty of a grave fault A religious superior may do the same to a subject , 3. Frequent communicants may gain all indulgences except that of jubilees with actual confession once in two weeks , 3. Communion may be received no more than once a day It may be distributed on all days, excepting Good Friday and before the services on Holy Saturday.
It should ordinarily be distributed only at Mass time. Viaticum may be given any day or hour Holy Communion may be distributed wherever Mass may be said, excepting in private oratories or in places forbidden by the Ordinary The priest is the ordinary dispenser of Holy Communion , 1 ; the deacon the extraordinary minister , 2 , who may distribute it both during and outside of Mass according to his rite , 1 under the form of bread Any priest may carry it privately to the sick Children who are ignorant of the truths necessary for salvation , 1 and public sinners are to be refused Holy Communion , 1.
Those who are in mortal sin , who have received or who are not fasting should not receive. All are bound to receive at Easter time , 1 , in danger of death , 1 , and when receiving major orders Those who are being married should receive All the faithful have permission to receive under any rite All who have come to the age of discretion must receive during the paschal time , 1 , which begins on the Sunday before and ends on the Sunday after Easter.
The paschal obligation binds even after the time has elapsed, until it is fulfilled , 4. It is not fulfilled by a sacrilegious Communion In regard to children, the paschal precept binds also those who have care of them: parents, tutors, confessors, teachers, and pastor The Easter Communion may be received in any rite or church Community Life. Community life among secular priests is to be praised It is to be sacredly kept by religious , 1 , especially in the house of studies , 2. Religious who violate it gravely, after being warned, are to be severely punished by the superior even by depriving them of active and passive voice The good work promised in a non-reserved vow can be commuted into a better or an equal one by the person who made the vow.
It can be changed into a lesser work only by one having the power to dispense In the application of a penalty the judge cannot augment the penalty specified by law, but may commute it into a lesser one when the circumstances permit Mutual injury is considered a compensation , 3.
If any controversy arises about the competency of the Sacred Congregations, tribunals, or offices of the Roman Curia, a committee of Cardinals appointed by the Pope will decide it The competency of the Ordinary is defined in the Code — Matrimonial cases between baptized persons belong exclusively to the ecclesiastical court Cases concerning only the civil effects of marriage pertain to the civil court To avoid a judicial trial the interested parties may enter into an agreement by which the settlement of their case is left to the judgment of one or more, who will dispose of it according to law, or settle it according to the rules of equity Special agreements arranged between the Holy See and various nations are not abrogated by the new Code 3.
Any one publicly living in concubinage shall be excluded from all legitimate ecclesiastical acts until he has repented and amended his life , 3.
If a priest, he shall be suspended, deprived of his parish, and of every ecclesiastical support From public concubinage arises the impediment of public propriety, which invalidates marriage in the direct line only to the second degree inclusive The form of appointing pastors by concursus shall be retained where it has been established , 4.
Those who have the right of patronage can present only such candidates as have passed the concursus Conditions added to a marriage consent may render it invalid or suspend its validity If a Catholic adds the condition to his marriage consent that he will have his children baptized and raised as non-Catholics he is to be suspected of heresy and is excommunicated by the law Conferences, Diocesan. Diocesan conferences should be held repeatedly each year. All priests exercising their faculties must attend them The dean should preside , 1. These conferences should be held in every community of priests at least once a month Priests who obstinately absent themselves from the diocesan conferences shall be punished by the Ordinary.
If they are religious, he may revoke their faculties of hearing confession Conferences, Episcopal. A conference of the Bishops of each province is to be held at least every five years, to consider what is to be done to promote the welfare of religion, and to prepare matter for the next Provincial Council Confession, Annual.
All Catholics who have come to the use of reason, must confess their mortal sins truthfully at least once a year A sacrilegious confession does not satisfy this precept Confession, Judicial. A judicial confession, freely and deliberately made by one in a private affair, frees the other from the burden of proving the point The person who made a judicial confession cannot contradict his statement unless he can prove that his confession was erroneous Confession, Sacramental.
Sacramental confession is necessary for mortal sins committed since the reception of baptism that have not yet been forgiven in a good confession Mortal sins that have been forgiven and venial sins may be confessed Religious and seminarians should go to confession at least once a week , 1, 3; , 2. To gain the indulgence of some feast the prescribed confession may be made eight days preceding the feast , 1. Any one in mortal sin must go to confession before receiving Holy Communion , celebrating Mass , or being married The confession must be made to a duly authorized priest of any rite , but in danger of death it may be validly and licitly made to a priest not approved, even when a duly authorized priest is present Novices and seminarians should not confess to their master, socius or rector , Confession may be made through an interpreter Pastors and others having the care of souls are bound in justice to hear the confession of their subjects.
Other priests are bound in charity to hear the faithful The confessional should be placed in a conspicuous place in the church or oratory, and have a grate between the confessor and the penitent Excepting cases of necessity, the confession of women should not be heard outside the confessional, though men may be heard in private homes Confessor, Extraordinary.
Every religious community of lay men and women , shall have an extraordinary confessor at least four times a year.
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The Ordinary shall also appoint a number of priests to whom the religious may go to confession on special occasions Besides, religious may go to the confessional of any duly authorized priest and confess their sins When seriously ill, they may ask for any duly authorized priest to hear their confession Confessor, Jurisdiction of.
The priest is the minister of the Sacrament of Penance Besides the power of orders, the confessor needs the power of jurisdiction The Pope and the Cardinals have ordinary jurisdiction for the entire Church, and the Bishop in his diocese. Exempt religious superiors have the same for their subjects Delegated jurisdiction is given to all duly authorized priests. Religious should not use it without the permission of their superiors Exempt religious priests and other priests may be delegated by their superiors to hear the members of their own Order All priests must be delegated by the Ordinary to hear the confession of any religious not of their own order Delegated jurisdiction shall not be withdrawn without a grave reason Any priest has jurisdiction to hear the confession of a person in danger of death Confessor, Minister.
The priest is the minister of justice and of mercy in the confessional The sacramental penance should be proportionate to the guilt and disposition of the penitent The seal of confession binds all who hear it , 2. To guard it the confessor must abstain from every word or sign that might betray the sinner , 1. He can make no use of knowledge acquired by hearing confessions as long as it is disagreeable to the penitent , 1.
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He cannot use this knowledge in the government of his subjects , 2 , nor on the witness stand , 3, 2; , 2, 1. Confessors must make their profession of faith every year, or at least at the beginning of their office , 1, 7. Pastors are bound in justice, other priests in charity, to hear confessions A confessor may also hear persons of another rite Confessor of Religious.
In every house of clerical religious several lawfully approved confessors shall be appointed with the faculty of absolving also from the reserved cases of the Order. Superiors may hear the confession of subjects, but should do so only by way of exception. They must beware against inviting the subjects to come to confession to them Religious should confess to their regular confessor at stated times as defined in their constitutions, but if they confess to a priest approved only by the Ordinary their confession is both valid and licit, as though made to a priest of their Order In every convent of religious women and of religious lay men an ordinary confessor shall be appointed by the Bishop , 1.
If some religious, for the good of her soul, should desire a special confessor, the Ordinary shall readily grant her request , 2.
The confessor of religious should be an exemplary, prudent man of forty years of age , 1. The ordinary confessor should not exercise his office for more than three years unless the Bishop reappoints him on account of a scarcity of priests, or the majority of the sisters desire to retain him If a convent of religious women is under the immediate jurisdiction of the Pope or the Bishop, the latter appoints both the ordinary and the extraordinary confessor for it.
If it is subject to a regular superior, the latter may present a confessor for the approbation of the Ordinary The Bishop is the ordinary minister of Confirmation, but the Holy See may grant a priest the faculty of giving it The Bishop should give it to all who ask for it, especially at the time of his visitation To receive Confirmation worthily, a Catholic must be in the state of grace and sufficiently instructed in his religion Although Confirmation is not a means necessary to salvation pastors should instruct the people not to neglect it In the Latin Church Confirmation should be given to children when they come to the use of reason, unless there is a cause for giving it earlier Those to be confirmed should be present at the first imposition of hands, and should not depart before the end of the ceremony Confirmation may be administered any time of the year , in any church or becoming place A sponsor is to be employed , one for each person confirmed , who has arrived at the use of reason, is confirmed, a practical Catholic, and of the same sex as the person confirmed — The sponsor contracts a spiritual relationship and the obligation, as in baptism The names of the persons confirmed, their parents and sponsors, and of the officiating Bishop are to be recorded in the baptismal register Confraternities are sodalities erected to promote divine worship They are erected by a formal decree To take part in a body at sacred functions the members must wear their insignia There should be only one confraternity of the same name in the same town Confraternities should be attached to a church or oratory , not charge admission , and keep their accounts separate from that of the parish See Associations.
Congregation, Religious. A Congregation is a religious society in which the members take simple vows for a time or for life , 2. A Bishop may found a Congregation with the approbation of the Holy See , 1. The law of enclosure shall be observed in all houses of religious Congregations , 1. After the completion of their novitiate the novices must take temporary vows at least for three years before they are admitted to perpetual vows, unless the constitutions demand yearly profession See Regulars, Religious.
Congregations, Roman. The Roman Curia consists principally of eleven Congregations between whom the work of the Curia is divided. Each Congregation consists of a number of Cardinals and assisting priests The Consistorial Congregation appoints Bishops and receives their reports The Congregation of the Sacraments regulates the administration of the Sacraments The Congregation of the Council presides over the discipline of the secular clergy and the laity The Congregation of Religious has jurisdiction over Religious Orders The Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith has jurisdiction over the Church in missionary countries The Congregation of Rites has authority over sacred rites and ceremonies of the Latin Rite and the canonization of saints The Ceremonial Congregation regulates the ceremonies of the pontifical chapel and the papal court The Congregation for Extraordinary Affairs establishes new dioceses and makes agreements with various nations The Congregation for Seminary and University Studies has jurisdiction over the government, discipline, administration and studies in seminaries And the Congregation for the Oriental Church has jurisdiction over persons and rites of the Oriental Churches In the Code these Congregations are referred to under the name Holy See 7.
Appeal may be had to them from the decrees of the Ordinary Conjugicide establishes a diriment impediment to the marriage of those who commit it , 2—3. Consanguinity is measured by lines and degrees. In the direct line there are as many degrees as generations.
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In the collateral lines there are as many degrees as there are generations in the longest line Consanguinity establishes a diriment impediment between all persons in the direct line, and between persons related to the third degree inclusive of the collateral line The latter is classed as an impediment of a minor degree , 2, 1. Where it exists and a marriage is contracted without a dispensation, the Ordinary may declare that marriage void Without a special indult no one but a Bishop can consecrate , 1.
The formula prescribed by the Church must be followed in consecrations Consecrated articles should be treated reverently In selling a consecrated article no increase in the price can be made on account of the consecration , 1. Consent, Matrimonial. Matrimonial consent is an act of the will by which the contracting parties mutually give and accept the perpetual and exclusive right to their bodies for acts that may generate children , 2. This consent cannot be validly given unless the contracting parties know at least that marriage is a permanent union between a man and a woman for the purpose of procreation , 1.
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The internal consent of the will is always presumed to correspond with the words or signs by which consent is manifested in the celebration of marriage , 1. The matrimonial consent may be rendered invalid by error concerning the person one is marrying, by error concerning a quality of that individual, which amounts to an error of the person, and error regarding the condition of the person e.
Error about the unity, indissolubility, or sacramental dignity of marriage does not vitiate the contract Knowledge or opinion of the nullity of marriage does not necessarily exclude matrimonial consent If one or both parties by a positive act of the will exclude marriage itself, or all right to the conjugal act, or any of the essential qualities of marriage, they contract invalidly , 2. Besides, the matrimonial consent may be rendered invalid by grave fear or force brought to bear unjustly upon one of the contracting parties by which he was forced to choose marriage to free himself from a difficulty Finally, the matrimonial consent may be rendered invalid by a condition added to the consent and not retracted, e.
The matrimonial consent is to be expressed in words. Signs may be used by those who cannot speak , 2. Marriage may also be contracted through an interpreter or by proxy in case of necessity Consent of Consultors. When the law requires a Superior to obtain the consent of his consultors, his action is invalid without it , 1. Constitutions, Religious. Rules and particular constitutions of religious which are opposed to the canons of the Code are abrogated The constitutions should be observed alike by superiors and subjects At least once a year the constitutions and the prescribed papal decrees should be publicly read , 2.
When approved by the Holy See they cannot be changed by the Ordinary , 2, 1. Consultors, Diocesan. In dioceses without cathedral chapters of canons the Bishop shall appoint as diocesan consultors priests who are men of piety, virtue, learning and prudence There should be six, or at least four diocesan consultors, and all should reside in the episcopal city or its vicinity. Before entering on their office they shall swear to perform their duties faithfully without human respect They are appointed for three years, when they may be reappointed or others placed in their stead. They shall not be removed during their term without a just cause Taking the place of the cathedral chapters as the council of the Bishop they take the same part in the government of the diocese They must assist at the diocesan synods and provincial councils , Vicars and Prefects Apostolic should form a Council of at least three of the older and more prudent missionaries, whom they should consult at least in more difficult affairs Consultors, Parish.